S 2056 - Bactria (uncertain mint) (Diodotus I and II), gold, staters (255-220 BCE) Kovalenko
From SILVER
255 BCE - 225 BCE Gold 43,110 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Diademed head of Antiochos II right |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOΧOY (Greek).Zeus advancing left, brandishing thunderbolt and holding aegis draped over arm, in inner left field, N above eagle standing left |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Bactria (uncertain mint) | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Bactria | Modern countryModern country: Afghanistan | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: | Bactrian Kingdom, Diodotus I of Bactria (Seleucid satrap and king in Bactria, c. 255/50-239 BC), Diodotus II of Bactria (king in Bactria, 239-223 C), Antiochus II Theos (Seleucid king, 261-246 BC) |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 255 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 225 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Hellenistic ^{323-30 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Gold | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 8.30 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | stater | StandardStandard.: | Attic |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Kovalenko 19961 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | Sear II2 , HGC 93 |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
1 | 6 | 37.5 | 6 | 18.75 | A, E, F, I, J, P |
2 | 8 | 50 | 16 | 50 | B, C, G, H, K, M, N, O |
5 | 2 | 12.5 | 10 | 31.25 | D, L |
Total | 16 of 16 | 100 | 32 of 32 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 16 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 6 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 32 | |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 2 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 37.5 % | |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 25.97 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 519,400 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 32 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00006 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 81.25% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 2,464.38 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 43,110 kg <br /> 43,110 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 6,160.95 |
Remarks
References
- ^ Kovalenko, Sergei (1995/1996), "The coinage of Diodotus I and Diodotus II, Greek kings of Bactria", Silk Road Art and Archaeology, 4, p. 17-64, pl. I-X.
- ^ Sear, David R. (1979), Greek coins and their values. Vol. II, Asia and North Africa, London, xlviii, p. 317-762
- ^ Hoover, Oliver D. (2009), Handbook of ancient Syrian coins : royal and civic issues, fourth to first centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage 9, Lancaster, lxix, 332 p.