S 1930 - Ephesus (Augustus), silver, cistophori (25-20 BCE)
From SILVER
25 BCE - 20 BCE Silver 101,350 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | IMP CAESAR (Latin).Bare head of Augustus right |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | AVGVSTVS (Latin).Capricorn r., head reverted, carrying cornucopia on its back, all within laurel wreath |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Ephesus | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Ionia | Modern countryModern country: Turkey | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: | Roman Empire, Augustus (Roman emperor, 27 BC-14 AD) |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 25 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 20 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Roman ^{from 30 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 12.00 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | cistophorus | StandardStandard.: |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Sutherland 19701 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | RIC2 , RPC I3 |
Obverse dies distribution
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 201 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 111 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 242 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 326 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 1.62 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 1.35 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 1.2 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 55.22 % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 422.29 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 8,445,800 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 524.21 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00004 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 65.95% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 1,543.96 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 101,350 kg <br /> 101,350 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 3,859.91 |
Remarks
Most likely two workstations
References
- ^ Sutherland, C. H. V. (1970), The cistophori of Augustus, RNS Spec. Publ. 5, London, 134 p., 36 pl.
- ^ RIC
- ^ Amandry, Michel - Burnett, Andrew - Ripolles, Pere Pau (1998), Roman provincial coinage. I. From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AC 69), London-Paris, 2 vol., xvii + 812 p., 195 pl.