Populonia, silver, 10 asses (425-400 BCE)
From SILVER
425 BCE - 400 BCE Silver 2,270 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Diademed facing head of Metus with protruding tongue, below, X (mark of value) |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | Blank |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Populonia | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Etruria | Modern countryModern country: Italy | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 425 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 400 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Classical ^{480-323 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 8.10 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | 10 asses | StandardStandard.: |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Vecchi 20121 , Giannoni 20182 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | HN Italy3 , HGC 14 | ||
Coin series web referenceCoin series web references: |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
1 | 2 | 18.18 | 2 | 6.06 | X, XE |
2 | 4 | 36.36 | 8 | 24.24 | XD, XF, XG, XH |
3 | 1 | 9.09 | 3 | 9.09 | XM |
4 | 3 | 27.27 | 12 | 36.36 | XB, XL, XV |
8 | 1 | 9.09 | 8 | 24.24 | XA |
Total | 11 of 11 | 99.99 | 33 of 33 | 99.99 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 11 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 2 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 33 | |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 3 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 18.18 % | |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 14.01 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 280,200 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 16.5 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00012 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 93.94% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 4,710.92 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 2,270 kg <br /> 2,270 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 11,777.3 |
Remarks
Most likely one single workstation
References
- ^ Vecchi, Italo (2012), Etruscan coinage: a corpus of the struck coinage of the Rasna, together with an historical and economic commentary on the issues (gold, silver and bronze), Milan, Ennerre, 590 p. (135 pl.).
- ^ Giannoni, Luciano (2018), Schede quantitative delle emissioni monetali etrusche, unpublished manuscript, s.l., 13 p.
- ^ Rutter N. Keith et alii (eds.) (2001), Historia Numorum Italy, London, xvi, 223 p., 43 pl.
- ^ Hoover, Oliver D. (2018), The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 1. Handbook of Coins of Italy and Magna Graecia, Sixth to First Centuries BC., Lancaster-London, 2018, lxi, 527 pages, 23 cm