Babylon (Alexander the Great), silver, decadrachms (Heracles/Zeus) (325-323 BCE)
From SILVER
325 BCE - 323 BCE Silver 1,957 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | AΛEΞANΔPOY to right (Greek).Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, on throne with eagle-tipped finials, holding sceptre, monogram and M below throne |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Babylon | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Mesopotamia | Modern countryModern country: Iraq | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: | Alexander III the Great (Argead king, 336-323 BC) |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 325 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 323 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Classical ^{480-323 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 42.00 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | decadrachm | StandardStandard.: | Attic |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Price 1991b1 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | Sear II2 , Price 19913 , HGC 3.14 | ||
Coin series web referenceCoin series web references: |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
3 | 1 | 50 | 3 | 37.5 | 1 |
5 | 1 | 50 | 5 | 62.5 | 2 |
Total | 2 of 2 | 100 | 8 of 8 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 2 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 7 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 8 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 4 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 1.14 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 3.5 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 2.33 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 46,600 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 2.67 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00017 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | % | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 6,866.95 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 1,957 kg <br /> 1,957 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 17,167.38 |
Remarks
Most likely one single workstation Certainly military
References
- ^ Price, Martin J. (1991), "Circulation at Babylon in 323 B.C.", in W.E. Metcalf (ed.), Mnemata : papers in memory of Nancy M. Waggoner, New York, p. 63-72, pl. 15-17.
- ^ Sear, David R. (1979), Greek coins and their values. Vol. II, Asia and North Africa, London, xlviii, p. 317-762
- ^ Price, Martin Jessop (1991), The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus: a British Museum Catalogue, 2 vol., Zürich-London, 637 p., 637 p., clix pl.
- ^ Hoover, Oliver D. (2016), Handbook of coins of Macedon and its neighbors. 3. Part I: Macedon, Illyria, and Epeiros, sixth to first centuries BC, Lancaster, 437 p.