AC 57 - Himera, silver, obols (530-482 BCE)
From SILVER
530 BCE - 482 BCE Silver 1,083 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Hen standing to left. |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | Incuse square with mill-sail pattern |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Himera | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Sicily | Modern countryModern country: Italy | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 530 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 482 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Archaic ^{until 480 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 0.85 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | obol | StandardStandard.: |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Kraay 19831 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | Sear I2 , RQEMAC3 , HGC 24 |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
1 | 17 | 54.84 | 17 | 33.33 | 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 |
2 | 10 | 32.26 | 20 | 39.22 | 1, 2, 5, 13, 15, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25 |
3 | 2 | 6.45 | 6 | 11.76 | 6, 19 |
4 | 2 | 6.45 | 8 | 15.69 | 16, 22 |
Total | 31 of 31 | 100 | 51 of 51 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 31 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 17 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 22 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 51 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 1.65 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 2.32 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 0.71 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 54.84 % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 63.73 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 1,274,600 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 79.05 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00004 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 66.67% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 1,600.5 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 1,083 kg <br /> 1,083 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 4,001.26 |
Remarks
References
- ^ Kraay, Colin M. (1983), The archaic Coinage of Himera, Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici 1, Naples, 102 p., 15 pl.
- ^ Sear, David R. (1978), Greek coins and their values. Vol. I, Europe, London, xl, 316 p.
- ^ Callataÿ, François de (2003), Recueil quantitatif des émissions monétaires archaïques et classiques, Numismatique Romaine, Wetteren, VII + 267 p.
- ^ Hoover, Oliver D. (2012), The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series. 2. Handbook of the Coins of Sicily (Including Lipara). Civic, Royal, Siculo-Punic, and Romano-Sicilian Issues. Sixth to First Centuries BC, Lancaster-London, 489 p.