Syracuse, silver, decadrachms (quadriga/Arethusa Kimon) (404-400 BCE)
From SILVER
404 BCE - 400 BCE Silver 2,465 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Fast quadriga driven l. by charioteer, holding reins and kentron, in field above, Nike flying r. to crown him. On the exergual line, to the l., in minute letters, [KΙΜΩΝ] obliterated. In exergue, display of military harness set on two steps and beneath, [ΑΘΛΑ]. |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (Greek).Head of the nymph Arethusa (Kore-Persephone) l., wearing earring with pendant and beaded necklace, wavy hair bound in front with ampyx, on which the signature K, and caught up behind by net. Around three dolphins, while a fourth makes dorsal contact with neck truncation, on its body, the signature ΚΙΜΩΝ |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Syracuse | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Sicily | Modern countryModern country: Italy | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 404 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 400 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Classical ^{480-323 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 43.25 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | decadrachm | StandardStandard.: | Attic |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Jongkees 19411 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | Sear I2 , RQEMAC3 , HGC 24 | ||
Coin series web referenceCoin series web references: |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
31 | 1 | 33.33 | 31 | 20.39 | C |
45 | 1 | 33.33 | 45 | 29.61 | B |
76 | 1 | 33.33 | 76 | 50 | A |
Total | 3 of 3 | 99.99 | 152 of 152 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 3 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 13 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 152 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 50.67 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 11.69 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 4.33 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 2.85 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 57,000 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 3.06 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00267 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | % | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 106,666.67 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 2,465 kg <br /> 2,465 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 266,666.67 |
Remarks
Most likely one single workstation Likely military
References
- ^ Jongkees, Jan Hendrik (1941), The Kimonian Dekadrachms. A Contribution to Sicilian Numismatics, Utrecht, 141 p. : II pl., diagrs. ; 27 cm.
- ^ Sear, David R. (1978), Greek coins and their values. Vol. I, Europe, London, xl, 316 p.
- ^ Callataÿ, François de (2003), Recueil quantitatif des émissions monétaires archaïques et classiques, Numismatique Romaine, Wetteren, VII + 267 p.
- ^ Hoover, Oliver D. (2012), The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series. 2. Handbook of the Coins of Sicily (Including Lipara). Civic, Royal, Siculo-Punic, and Romano-Sicilian Issues. Sixth to First Centuries BC, Lancaster-London, 489 p.