Syracuse, gold, tetralitrae (Gorgoneion/athlete) (406 BCE)
From SILVER
406 BCE - 406 BCE Gold 1,953 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙOΝ (Greek).Circular shield decorated at centre with a facing gorgoneion |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | Ephebe, in the form of a naked athlete, standing l., holding strigil in his r. hand with which he is removing oil from his l. knee |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Syracuse | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Sicily | Modern countryModern country: Italy | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 406 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 406 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Classical ^{480-323 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Gold | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 3.50 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | tetralitron | StandardStandard.: |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Boehringer 19921 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | RQEMAC2 , HGC 23 | ||
Coin series web referenceCoin series web references: |
Obverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 2 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 4 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 5 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 2.5 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 1.25 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 2 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 2.79 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 55,800 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 3.33 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00009 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | % | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 3,584.23 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 1,953 kg <br /> 1,953 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 8,960.57 |
Remarks
Most likely one single workstation Likely military
References
- ^ Boehringer, Christof (1992), "Ehrenrettung einer syrakusanischen Goldmünze", in H. Nilsson (ed.), Florilegium Numismaticum. Studia in Honorem U. Westermark Edita, Stockholm, 1992, p. 73-80
- ^ Callataÿ, François de (2003), Recueil quantitatif des émissions monétaires archaïques et classiques, Numismatique Romaine, Wetteren, VII + 267 p.
- ^ Hoover, Oliver D. (2012), The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series. 2. Handbook of the Coins of Sicily (Including Lipara). Civic, Royal, Siculo-Punic, and Romano-Sicilian Issues. Sixth to First Centuries BC, Lancaster-London, 489 p.