S 869 - Punjab (uncertain mint) (Menander), silver, tetradrachms (150-125 BCE)
From SILVER
150 BCE - 125 BCE Silver 79,057 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Several types: 1) Bust of Menander three quarter left, wearing diadem, aegis on shoulder, snake on back, brandishing spear, within border of beed and reel, 2) Bust of Menander right, wearing diadem and chlamys, within border of beed and reel. |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ MENANΔΡΟΥ (Greek).Athena Alkidemos left, shield attached on her arm and brandishing thunderbolt. In field, a monogram. |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Punjab (uncertain mint) | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Bactria | Modern countryModern country: India | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: | Menander I Soter (Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek king, 165/155 -130 BC), Indo-Greek kingdom |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 150 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 125 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Hellenistic ^{323-30 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 16.80 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | tetradrachm | StandardStandard.: | Attic |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Bordeaux 20181 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
1 | 4 | 100 | 4 | 100 | |
Total | 4 of 4 | 100 | 4 of 4 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 4 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 4 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 4 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 4 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 1 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 1 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 1 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 100 % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 235.29 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 4,705,800 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00000 | |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 0% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 34 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 79,057 kg <br /> 79,057 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 85 |
Remarks
References
- ^ Bordeaux, Olivier (2018), s (IIIe s. a.C.-Ier s. p.C.), Numismatica Antiqua 8, Bordeaux, 326 p.