S 403 - Susa (Seleucus I), silver, drachms (301-295 BCE)
From SILVER
301 BCE - 295 BCE Silver 2,956 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Head of Seleucus I Nikator right, wearing a helmet covered by a panther skin, with ears and horns of a bull, a panther skin around the neck. Border of dots. |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ (Greek).Nike right crowning a trophee. Between them, 1 monogram, AX, ΔI or a Boeotian shield. In the field, H, M, AP or a monogram. Border of dots. |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Susa | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Mesopotamia | Modern countryModern country: Iran | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: | Seleucid Dynasty (312-63 BC), Seleucus I Nicator (satrap in 321-305 BC and Seleucid king in 305-281 BC) |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 301 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 295 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Hellenistic ^{323-30 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 4.10 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | drachma | StandardStandard.: | Attic |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Marest-Caffey 20161 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | SC I2 , HGC 93 |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
1 | 14 | 56 | 14 | 23.73 | 1, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 |
2 | 6 | 24 | 12 | 20.34 | 3, 7, 8, 12, 17, 25 |
3 | 3 | 12 | 9 | 15.25 | 2, 4, 18 |
6 | 1 | 4 | 6 | 10.17 | 10 |
18 | 1 | 4 | 18 | 30.51 | 14 |
Total | 25 of 25 | 100 | 59 of 59 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 25 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 14 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 30 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 59 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 2.36 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 1.97 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 1.2 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 56 % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 36.05 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 721,000 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 43.38 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00008 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 76.27% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 3,273.23 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 2,956 kg <br /> 2,956 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 8,183.08 |
Remarks
Most likely one single workstation
References
- ^ Marest-Caffey, Laure (2016), "Seleukos I's Victory Coinage of Susa Revisited: A Die Study and Commentary", American Journal of Numismatic, 28, p. 1-64.
- ^ Houghton, Arthur - Lorber, Catharine (2002), Seleucid coins : a comprehensive catalogue. Part 1, Seleucus I through Antiochus III, New York - Lancaster - London, 2 v. (xxxviii, 488 p. + 300 p.), 101 pl.
- ^ Hoover, Oliver D. (2009), Handbook of ancient Syrian coins : royal and civic issues, fourth to first centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage 9, Lancaster, lxix, 332 p.