Perinthus (Lysimachus), gold, staters (Alexander/Athena) (280-250 BCE)
From SILVER
280 BCE - 250 BCE Gold 39,253 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Diademed head of deified Alexander the Great right, with horn of Ammon |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ (Greek).Athena enthroned left, holding Nike, who crowns king's name, and leaning left elbow on shield at her side, a spear resting behind her, foreparts of two horses joined back to back and monogram on left |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Perinthus | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Thrace | Modern countryModern country: Turkey | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: | Lysimachus (Macedonian officer, diadochus and king, c. 360-281 BC) |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 280 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 250 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Hellenistic ^{323-30 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Gold | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 8.50 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | stater | StandardStandard.: | Attic |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Marinescu 20231 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | Marinescu - Lorber 20122 |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
1 | 4 | 80 | 4 | 66.67 | 1, 5, 8, 9 |
2 | 1 | 20 | 2 | 33.33 | 4 |
Total | 5 of 5 | 100 | 6 of 6 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 5 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 4 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | 5 | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 6 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 1.2 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | 1.2 |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | 1 | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 80 % |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 23.09 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 461,800 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 30 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00001 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 33.33% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 519.71 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 39,253 kg <br /> 39,253 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 1,299.26 |
Remarks
Most likely one single workstation Likely military
References
- ^ Marinescu, Constantin A. (2023), "The Lysimachi Coinage of Perinthus," Bulgarian Numismatic Journal, 1 (2), p; 1-28
- ^ Marinescu Constantin A. and Catharine C. Lorber (2012), "The ‘Black Sea’ tetradrachm hoard”, in E. Paunov and S. Filipova (eds.), ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ. Studia in honorem Iliae Prokopov sexagenario ab amicis et discipulis dedicata, Tirnovo, 2012, p. 197-259 (p. 213-214).