AC 194 - Athens, silver, didrachms (475-449 BCE)
From SILVER
475 BCE - 449 BCE Silver 9,202 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Head of Athena r., wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves and volute, disc-shaped ear-clip and necklace |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | AΘE (Greek).Within incuse round, shallow incuse square, in which owl standing r., head facing, in field r., AΘE, l., two olive leaves, the l. one overlapping the frame |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Athens | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Attica | Modern countryModern country: Greece | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 475 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 449 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Classical ^{480-323 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Silver | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 8.55 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | didrachm | StandardStandard.: | Attic |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Starr 19701 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | Sear I2 , RQEMAC3 |
Obverse dies distribution
FrequencyFrequency of specimen in distribution. ^{ᵖ} | Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | % (o) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | % (n) | Die nameName(s) of the die(s). |
1 | 16 | 69.57 | 16 | 45.71 | 22, 23, 25, 37, 38, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71, 88, 89, 90, 121, 122 |
2 | 5 | 21.74 | 10 | 28.57 | 24, 39, 67, 70, 119 |
4 | 1 | 4.35 | 4 | 11.43 | 123 |
5 | 1 | 4.35 | 5 | 14.29 | 87 |
Total | 23 of 23 | 100.01 | 35 of 35 | 100 |
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 23 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | 16 |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | c. 26"c" can not be assigned to a declared number type with value 0.26. | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 35 |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 1.52 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | 69.57 % | |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 53.81 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 1,076,200 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 67.08 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00003 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | 54.29% | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 1,300.87 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 9,202 kg <br /> 9,202 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 3,252.18 |
Remarks
References
- ^ Starr, Chester G. (1970), Athenian Coinage 480-449 B.C., Oxford, 97 p., 26 pl.
- ^ Sear, David R. (1978), Greek coins and their values. Vol. I, Europe, London, xl, 316 p.
- ^ Callataÿ, François de (2003), Recueil quantitatif des émissions monétaires archaïques et classiques, Numismatique Romaine, Wetteren, VII + 267 p.