Sardis (Croesus), gold, staters (foreparts of lion and bull/incuse squares) (560-546 BCE)
From SILVER
560 BCE - 546 BCE Gold 996,363 kg
Description
ObverseInscription or printing placed on the obverse.: | Confronted foreparts of a lion and a bull |
ReverseInscription or printing placed on the reverse.: | Two incuse squares, one larger than the other. Berk |
Mint and issuing power
MintIdentifies the place of manufacture or issue of a numismatic object.: | Sardis | Ancient regionAncient region.: | Lydia | Modern countryModern country: Turkey | AuthorityIdentifies the issuing power. The authority can be "pretended" when the name or the portrait of X is on the coin but he/she was not the issuing power. It can also be "uncertain" when there is no mention of X on the coin but he/she was the issuing power according to the historical sources: | Croesus (king of Lydia, 560-546 BCE) |
Chronology
FromIdentifies the initial date in a range assigned in a numismatic context. | 560 BCE | toIdentifies the final date in a range assigned in a numismatic context.. | 546 BCE | PeriodTime period of the numismatic object.: Archaic ^{until 480 BC} |
Physical description
MetalThe physical material (usually metal) from which an object is made.: | Gold | Median weightMedian of the weights of numismatic objects (in grams). in grams | 10.70 | DenominationTerm indicating the value of a numismatic object. Examples: tetradrachm, chalkous, denarius.: | stater | StandardStandard.: |
References
Die study referencePublication of the study: | Nimchuk 20001 | ||
Coin series referenceReference to coin series study: | Sear II2 , Carradice 19873 | ||
Coin series web referenceCoin series web references: |
Obverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Reverse dies distribution
no distribution is available
Quantification
Number of obversesNumber of obverse dies. ^{ᵖ} (o) | 152 | Number of singletons (o1)The number of singleton coins. ^{ᵖ} | |
Number of reverse diesNumber of reverse dies. (r) | Number of coinsNumber of coins. (n) | 205 | |
Coins per obverse dieNumber of coins per obverse die. (n/o) | 1.35 | Coins per reverse dieNumber of coins per reverse die. (n/r) | |
Reverse per obverse ratioRatio of obverse dies divided by reverse dies. (r/o) | Percentage of singletons (o1)number of coins (n) divided by the number of singletons (o1) ^{ᵖ} | % | |
Original number of dies (O) (Carter 1983 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to Carter 1983 ^{ᵖ} | 465.59 | Coins struck if 20,000 as average productivity per dieCoins made if the average productivity for obverses (according to Carter) is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 9,311,800 |
Original number of dies (O) (Esty 2011 formula)The estimation of the number of coins according to the singleton formula in Esty 2011 ^{ᵖ} (O) | 587.92 | Survival rate if 20,000 as average productivity per dieSurvival rate if average productivity is 20,000. ^{ᵖ} | 0.00002 |
Coverage (o = % of O) (Esty 1984 formula)Esty 1984 - coverage (% of O) ^{ᵖ} (o = % of O) | % | Die productivity if survival rate 1/2,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/2,000. ^{ᵖ} | 880.6 |
Weight of silver (in kg) if 20,000 coins per die (O = Carter formula)Carter 1983 * Median weight * 20000 (*10 if gold or electrum) ^{ᵖ} | 996,363 kg <br /> 996,363 kg | Die productivity if survival rate 1/5,000Average productivity if survival rate is 1/5,000. ^{ᵖ} | 2,201.51 |
Remarks
Likely military
References
- ^ Nimchuk, Cindy L. (2000), "The Lion-and-Bull Coinage of Croesus", The Classical and Medieval Numismatic Society Journal, 1 (1), p. 5-44.
- ^ Sear, David R. (1979), Greek coins and their values. Vol. II, Asia and North Africa, London, xlviii, p. 317-762
- ^ Carradice, Ian A. (1987), "The 'regal' coinage of the Persian empire," in I. A. Carradice (ed.), Coinage and administration in the Athenian and Persian empires, Oxford, p. 73-95,.